This PDF document contains textual sources and images pertaining to topics about Habibie’s government, the liberation of Xanana Gusmão, negotiations between Portugal and Indonesia pertaining to East Timor’s independence, the Conselho Nacional de Resistencia Timorense, the unification of Portuguese-speaking countries, and Brazil’s stance on the issue in East Timor.
“Timor Leste”, February 15, 1998
By: Hamilton Lafont
The article informs reader on East Timor’s colonial history. The reasons for Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor are also discussed, with the reasons being that East Timor is near Australia and because of the potential presence of oil and mineral resources.
“Timor Leste”, February 21, 1998
By: Manoel Lourenço Neto
The author, Manoel Lourenço Neto, criticizes and analyzes the article written by Hamilton Lafont. Neto states that several facts and pieces of information that Lafont used, such as the size of East Timor and the colonial history, were incorrect.
“Timor Leste”, February 7, 1998
By: Jorge Eduardo Moraes Silva
The article discusses the genocide in East Timor, highlighting a study made by the Catholic Church which said that the massacre in East Timor passes the brutality seen in World War II. Finally, the article urges Brazil to protest the genocide through boycotting Indonesian products
“Pela Liberdade do Timor Leste”, March 1998
A mandate from an unknown party defended the East Timorese population’s right to liberty in front of the Legislative Assembly. The party participated in various receptions focused on East Timor, and supported the initiatives of Clamor por Timor. The party also organized Ramos-Horta’s visit to the Legislative Assembly.
“Évora homenageia bispo timorense”, Folha turismo, June 29, 1998
By: Dario Moreira de Castro Alves
This news article in the Folha Turismo mentions that there was a ceremony held for Bishop Belo in the Sala de Atos at the University of Évora where was presented with an honorary doctorate. In attendance was José Aparecido de Oliveira, ambassador of Brazil in Lisbon from 1993 to 1995.
“Indonésia deve retirar tropas”
This small section in the Folha Turismo mentions the Indonesian invasion of East Timor, as well as informing readers that the Indonesian president, Jusuf Habibie, has decided to gradually remove some troops from East Timor. | 2 pages
“Militares indonésios elaboraram plano para exterminar timorenses” Tribuna, February 2, 1998
By: Lúcia Cassalto
Abilio Osorio Soares, a governor for Suharto, has written a plan to win against the guerillas and the clandestine resistance in East Timor. The plan consists of arranging jobs for young adults; the distribution of young adults across Indonesia with no way back to East Timor; exterminating guerillas living in the forests and members of FRETILIN; the killing of anyone who is not in favor of integration with Indonesia.
“O processo de ocupação em Timor Leste”
The ideologies of UDT, FRETILIN, and APODETI are discussed, where the main objective of both UDT and FRETILIN is the independence of East Timor while APODETI supports the integration of Indonesia. The Indonesian invasion of East Timor is also analyzed and briefly discussed.
“62 mortos, 14 desaparecidos”, April 16, 1999
By: Joaquim T. de Negreiros
The number of deaths (62) and the number of people who have disappeared (14) after the Liquiçá massacre is disclosed. The Portuguese government has solicited that there be an international investigation for this massacre. The militia who are pro-integration are manifesting more frequently, resulting in increased violent acts. The militias are targeting civil servants who are in favor of East Timor’s independence, as well as leaders of pro-independence groups and family of Timorese immigrants who are in favor of independence.
“Politica para Timor Leste deve mudar”, Folha de S.Paulo, May 26, 1998
By: Marcio Aith
This news article discusses the Indonesian government’s decision to release a set amount of political prisoners. The release of Xanana Gusmão is being discussed, but it has not been confirmed. Jusuf Habibie’s government will also be reviewing their policies regarding East Timor, however the exact details pertaining to the changing of policies is not mentioned. | 2 pages
“Estudantes protestam em Timor Leste”, June 18, 1998
Thousands of Timorese students protested in front of the government building against the murder of one of their fellow peers, Hernán das Dores Soares, by an Indonesian soldier. They urge that human rights investigators from the United Nations come to East Timor. Additionally, in Jakarta, Timorese students gather in front of the Ministry of Justice building to push for a referendum in East Timor and for all political prisoners to be released from prison. They managed to give a written note with the requests to somebody who works for the ministry before dispersing.
“Indonésia pode dar status especial ao Timor”, June 10, 1998
President Habibie has stated that he has agreed to grant amnesty to ten Timorese political prisoners, not including Xanana Gusmão. It is stated that Gusmão would only be released once the United Nations and Portugal have recognized East Timor as a part of Indonesia. Habibie has also declared that he was ready to offer East Timor a “special status.” Despite this offer being one of Indonesia’s first attempts of reconciliation, Ramos-Horta has said that this status is not the proposition that pro-independence groups are looking for, and that he rejects the offer. | 2 pages
“Indonésia deve tirar tropas de Timor Leste”, June 25, 1998
Indonesia will begin to remove troops from East Timor and will begin to grant more liberty to its population. A discussion about allowing there to be a Timorese vote to decide if East Timor would become independent was made during a meeting between Bishop Belo and Jusuf Habibie.
“Soldados indonésios matam manifestante em Timor Leste” Folha São Paulo, June 30, 1998
By: Marcio Aith
One dead, named Orlando Marcelino da Costa, and five injured after Indonesian soldiers opened fire on a group protesting for independence. The shooting happened moments after the arrival of European ambassadors in Baucau.
“Indonésia retira 400 soldados de Timor”, July 29, 1998
By: Stephen Vines
Indonesia has removed 400 soldiers from East Timor, including two companies of the Special Forces Command. However, it was promised to the East Timor population that 1000 soldiers would leave, not 400 soldiers. The article discusses the good and bad aspects of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
“Sem Jacarta, região terá desafio econômico”
This section of the newspaper discusses the limited economic development that occurred during the Portuguese colonization of East Timor. Meanwhile, during the Indonesian occupation, the Indonesians have contributed to physical development but did not pay attention to human rights development. Once Indonesia leaves East Timor, the Timorese will be responsible to sustain themselves economically. Various crops and natural resources will be depended on for their profit, and external help will be needed to sustain the economy. | 2 pages.
“Entrevista com Hodu Ran Kadalak”, O Português Na Australia, September 16, 1998
An interview with Hodu Ran Kadalak, who is a member of the FRETILIN Central Committee and who traveled to Sydney to participate in the National Conference of FRETILIN, was conducted and written in this news article. Kadalak states that the Timorese people are grateful for Suharto’s resignation. He also discusses the following topics: the reason for his visit in Sydney; the unification of all Timorese; the regime that will be implemented in East Timor once Indonesia has left; the pressure to achieve Xanana Gusmão’s liberation; the calm state in East Timor that is a result of the resignation of Suharto and the negotiations taking place; the characteristics of the Habibie government. Kadalak then goes on to state that the Australian population and the Australian government should provide a more concrete stance on the issue of East Timor.
“Estrutura da resistência apresentada no território”, September 16, 1998
Members of the Conselho Nacional da Resistencia Timorense (CNRT) were presented in Dili, which included names of members of the APODETI, FRETILIN, FALINTIL, UDT, and others. Xanana Gusmão, the president of the CNRT, made it known that the objective of this group is the political reconciliation of the Timorese people.
“Ximenes Belo é um Santo! – afirmou o novo chefe de Estado da Indonésia”
An interview with Habibie discusses Bishop Belo, granting East Timor independence, and other topics.
“UDT em reunião geral “à porta aberta” em Dili”
Around 200 people participated in a UDT meeting that would discuss national unification and how the future discussions of the Timorese population would come about. During the meeting, representatives of many groups and organizations were in attendance, as well as elected members of the Comissão Política do Conselho Nacional da Resistencia Timorense | 3 pages.
“Indonésia admite sair de Timor Leste”
The Jakarta government intends to grant East Timor local political freedom. However, if this proposition is not accepted by the Timorese population, the Indonesian chancellor, Ali Alatas, proposes full independence but only after the general elections of June 7th are concluded. It is also made known that Xanana Gusmão will be transferred from prison to house arrest. Lastly, researchers believe that if East Timor achieves full independence, they will have a difficult time prospering economically.
“Lá, como cá, fala-se português”
By: Pasquale Cipro Neto
Neto is stating that Brazilians should unify themselves with the community of Portuguese-speaking countries.
“Militares aprovam independência de Timor”, January 29, 1999
The commandant of the Indonesian army, general Wiranto, stated that the military would abide by the Indonesian government’s decision to grant East Timor’s independence if they decide to
“Líder timorense pede luta armada”
Gusmão orders that guerrillas who are pro-independence take up arms against those that are in favor of merging with Indonesia. A delegation of the United Nations visited East Timor in March to determine the possibility of a referendum. The Indonesian government has made it known that even if the Timorese population rejects the idea of autonomy, the Indonesian government would still be willing to grant them independence.
“Rebelde quer tropa da ONU em Timor Leste”, April 7, 1999
Gusmão asks that reinforcements from the United Nations be brought to East Timor to manage the rise in violence. Indonesian troops have killed 40 civilians in a Church, and the militia killed 17 people in Liquiçá a few days back.
“Brinde na Paulista, à queda de um ditador”, May 30, 1998
A group of activists in São Paulo celebrated the resignation of Suharto.
“Campanha pela internet pede a libertação de Timor Leste” May 11, 1998
By: Jomeri Pontes
This news article discusses the campaign for East Timor independence that is circulating online, as well as highlighting other online sources that would inform the public on what is happening in East Timor. Most of the article describes the human rights violations and other atrocities that have been committed by Indonesia. To aid in East Timor’s liberation, the article recommends boycotting products made in Indonesia.
“Atos públicos pedem liberdade para o Timor Leste”, October 1998
Protests are held in Brazil for the liberation of Gusmão and to cease the human rights violations in East Timor. The magnitude of the genocide in East Timor is highlighted through a chart displaying the number of human lives lost due to war, with East Timor coming out on top. It is discussed that East Timor is connected to the community of Portuguese-speaking countries. Lastly, with the Habibie administration in place, negotiations towards East Timor’s independence are more probable, therefore Kofi Annan, General Secretary of the United Nations, has been setting up meetings between Portugal and Indonesia to discuss the future of East Timor
Poem by Xanana Gusmão
Date: November, 20, 1992
In this poem, Gusmão expresses the qualities seen in the Timorese people that empower their fight.
“FHC se diz solidário as vitimas de Timor” Folha de São Paulo, June 29, 1998
President Fernando Henrique Cardoso declared that he stands in solidarity with the Timorese population. José Aparecido de Oliveira is mentioned in the article, with his humanistic qualities being highlighted.
“Timor chora morte de jovem”
Timorese students held a protest for a 21 year-old Timorese who was killed by an Indonesian soldier. He was later buried in the Santa Cruz cemetery. The Indonesian soldier, Sergeant Slamet, would be tried and if found guilty would get a sentence of 15 years in prison.
“Renúncia de Suharto beneficia Timor Leste”
After the resignation of Suharto, there has been more freedom to protest in East Timor. Meanwhile, in Jakarta, protestors demand for the annexation of East Timor.
The text below the image of men wearing mainly white and facing a burning vehicle states that the resignation of Suharto was due to the manifestations of Timorese students. It also states that 500 people have died as a result of conflict with the police, but it does not mention when or for how long this conflict took place. | 2 pages
“D. Ximenes Belo participa do mutirão de comunicação no Brasil”
Belo attends the Mutirão Brasileiro de Comunicação in Belo Horizonte, that goes on from July 19 to 24. This event serves to reunite individuals who are striving to build societies that are just, equal, and participative.
“Brasil defende autonomia para Timor Leste” Folha de São Paulo, August 23, 1998
By: Renata Giraldi
Brazil supports the discussions of autonomy for East Timor, as well as the liberation of political prisoners and the removal of Indonesian troops from East Timor. Ambassador Ivan Cannabrava traveled to Portugal and Indonesia to meet with individuals who are for and against East Timor’s autonomy, including Bishop Belo and Ramos-Horta as well as other individuals that come from different backgrounds. The small section to the left of the article displays information on the situation of East Timor, the genocide, pro-independence groups, and information on Portugal and Indonesia.
“Embaixador brasileiro se reúne com líder de Timor”, August 27, 1998
The Brazilian ambassador in Indonesia, Jadiel Ferreira Oliveira, has met with Xanana Gusmão. A Brazilian delegation should be visiting in the near future.
“Timor Leste será tema em Portugal”, April 13, 1999
Rising rates of violence jeopardize talks of a referendum as well as the entire negotiation process that Indonesia has undergone since the resignation of Suharto. Xanana Gusmão has called for the people to protest against these conflicts, and has accused the Indonesian government to have deliberately compromised the peaceful negotiations by promoting violence. Ramos-Horta and Bishop Belo have expressed their hopes that Brazil would convey their support of East Timor’s independence more firmly. Despite not having yet reached independence for East Timor, Gusmão has acquired a place for East Timor in the CPLP (English translation: community of Portuguese-speaking countries).
“Crise indonésia leva separatistas a aliança”, Folha Mundo, May 1, 1998
By: Otávio Dias
Ramos-Horta has declared the creation of an organisation that would reunite all Timorese groups that are in favor of autonomy. Gusmão would become the president of the organisation, while Ramos-Horta and another unknown individual would be the vice-presidents. The article goes on by providing information on what the new organisation, called Conselho Nacional de Resistencia Timorense, exactly does; which groups form this new organisation; the strategy Ramos-Horta uses to further the East Timor cause; the implications and benefits of having guerrillas be part of the organisation; what the organisation’s plans are.
“Portugal criou instabilidade”
Indonesia blames Portugal for the political instability in East Timor. Indonesia believes that if they did not occupy East Timor, there would have been a civil war as a result of the unstable climate Portugal suddenly left behind.
“Repressão cresce no país”
By: Richard Lloyd Parry
This article mentions the detainment of several Timorese students, with one student named Pius Lustrilanang describing the different torture methods he had to endure. Human rights groups believe that he and the other students were held by the BIA (intelligence organization of the government). | 2 pages
“Ocidente ignora casos análogos a Kosovo” September 8th, 1998
Despite the fact that the United Nations condemned Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor, Indonesia did not receive any repercussions from the UN or from Western countries. A chart included in the article portrays three countries (one of them being East Timor) that have gone through conflict while attempting to separate themselves from their colonizers.
“Habibie liberta presos e confirma eleições”, May 26, 1998, Folha São Paulo
By: Pepe Escobar
Habibie’s government has reformed electoral laws, ceased the restrictions on the formation of political parties, changed the 1945 Constitution, promised elections would take place in the near future, and liberated two political prisoners. The rest of the article describes Indonesia’s deteriorating economy and how they plan to recuperate it. | 2 pages
Jacarta concorda em fazer plebiscito em Timor Leste, March 12, 1999, Folha São Paulo
The Indonesian and Portuguese government have agreed to have a referendum take place in East Timor. Still, Indonesia offers a plan of autonomy to East Timor in case they prefer it to independence. Furthermore, conflicts between Timorese who are for independence and those against have risen, with the pro-independence groups accusing Indonesia of arming those who are in favor of integration.